The origin of Olympic movement and games belongs to Greece. Ancient Olympic movement and games were practised in prehistoric period and continued for many centuries as Greek festival. The record say that the first historic mention of games occurred in 776 BC. These games were played in the state of Athens near the valley of Appheur river at Olympiad. The games were held with religious customs in the honour of their God ‘Zeus’.
The ceremony of Olympic movement and games began from the new moon day in july after four years. The events of Olympic continued for five days in precise order. On the first day of games, the priest performed the rituals with grand opening and burned the sacred torch. The famous heroes of these games were Homer, Atlas, Hercules, Gallen which are still remembered today.
These ancient Olympic movement and games came to a sudden end when the Roman emperor ‘Theodosius’ banned these games in 394 AD. The glory of these games vanished with time but still these are held at Olympiad.
MODERN OLYMPIC MOVEMENT AND GAMES
The revival work of Olympic games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, nearly 1500 years after the last ancient Olympic movement and games. Coubertin was born in an italian family and settled in France. In the conference of physical education on 25th November 1892, Coubertin first pronounced the ‘Restoration of Olympic Games’. He said that these games would enable to strengthen Amateur sports to develop everlasting qualities for modern education.
OLYMPIC MOVEMENT AND GAMES: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Olympic movement and games is to promote the development of those fine physical and moral qualities which are basis of Amateur sports and to bring together the athletes of the world in this great cordial festival of sports.
● OLYMPIC FLAG: Olympic flag was designed according to Coubertin’s suggestion in 1913. But this was first flown to olympic stadium in 1920 Antwerp Olympic games. It consists of five coloured ring circles interlinked with each other on white background.
● OLYMPIC TORCH: First time on Olympic flame was ceremoniously lit in 1928 at Amsterdam Olympics. This Olympic torch symbolises the continuity between the ancient and modern games. The torch used to kindle the flame is first lit by the sun rays at Olympiad (Greece) and then carried to the site of games by relay of runners.
●OLYMPIC MOTTO: The Olympic motto is “Citius, Altius, Fortius” which means to perform faster, higher and stronger. This motto was pronounced by Baron Pierre de Coubertin at paris Olympics in 1990.
●OLYMPIC PRICE: In ancient times the Olympic heroes were awarded with Olive crown but in Modern Olympics they are rewarded with medals and certificates. First position receives gold medal, second winner gets silver medal and third winner gets bronze medal.
●OLYMPIC OATH: Olympic oath is taken by the athlete of the host country. He holds the corner of the flag on behalf of all competitors. The oath is as “We swear that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sports and the honour of our country.
●OLYMPICS AND DRUGS: Today’s sports have became very professional and there is a lot of fame and money involved in sports. Thus, athletes and players sometimes choose illegal methods to achieve this. Many times they take drugs to enhance their performance. All unnatural methods of enhancing performance are banned in Olympics. Today, IOC is strictly following its regular checks towards drugs and sports. It has also set-up many laboratories to test athletes for drugs.
Apart from regular Olympic there are ice sports played which are familiar with the name ‘winter Olympic Games’. It includes ice skiing, cross country skiing, ski jumping, ice hockey.
These winter Olympic games were first started in the year 1924 at France. Then onward they are held after every four years. The XVIII winter Olympics were held at Nagano japan in 1998. The XIX winter Olympics were held at Salt Lake City USA in 2002. In these winter Olympics games these were issues related to partial judgement. In 2006 it was held at Turin italy in 2010 it was held at Vancouver Canada. In 2014 it was held at sochi Russia. In 2018 it will held at pyeongchang S.Korea.
The beginning of Asian Games came from the continuous effort of G.D. Sondhi and Maharaja Yadvender Singh since 1930. They planned an idea of organisingorganising sports competition among Asian countries like Olympics. This idea came to real existence when delegates from Burma, Philippines, Thailand, Nepal , India approved this as ‘Asian Games’. Thus, Asian Games federation (AGF) was formed in 1948 to control and regulate rules. This AGF recommended India to host first Asian Games.
Thus, the first Asian Games were born in 1951 at New Delhi. The AGF announced the motto of Asian games, “Ever Onward” and followed the pattern of Olympic games. Then onward these games are continuously played at regular interval of five years.
Later in june 1894, inthe international conference of Amateur sports at paris, passed the resolution to create International Olympic Committee (IOC), to observe the conduct of Modern Olympic Games. Coubertin planned to propose the site of first modern Olympic Games in 1900 at paris. But the zeal of the delegates was so much that they insisted the first games to be held in 1896 at Athens.
Since then these games were held after every four years. The honour of holding the Olympic games is entrusted to city and not to a country or region. The choice of city for the celebration is with IOC.
The flock of pigeons were sent to all cities of Greece which carried the names of the champions. The prizes given to winners were made from olive leaves. On the first day of games, the priest performed the rituals with grand opening and burned the sacred torch. On the next day, animal games were played. On the third day dialos,races, throwing,jumping. On the fourth day boxing, wrestling, sword fighting and other contest games were played. The glory of these games vanish with time but still these are held at Olympiad.
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