ORS-The Only Right Solution in Diarrhoea:Acute diarrheal diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality in infants and children in many developing countries. According to World Health Organisation(WHO), diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years.
DIARRHOEA, which is frequently caused by poor sanitation and hygiene, can have serious, even deadly results, typically as a result of diarrhea related dehydration. It particularly affects infants, children and old people. Diarrhoea generally lasts for several days, leaving the body without salt and water, which is necessary for survival. Most people who die from diarrhea actually die from severe dehydration and loss of fluid from the body.
Dehydration from diarrhoea can be prevented by giving extra fluids at home, or it can be treated simply and effectively by giving adequate glucose electrolyte solution called ORS-The Only Right Solution in Diarrhoea i.e., Oral Rehydration Solution. Every year,ORS day is celebrated on 29th july to highlight the importance of ORS salts as a cost effective method of health intervention. ORS-The Right Solution in Diarrhoea has proven to be successful in the prevention and management of acute diarrhoea and dehydration. If vomiting occurs, it is recommended that use be paused for 10 minutes and then gradually restarted.
ORS-The Only Right Solution in Diarrhoea
In the early 1980s, “oral rehydration therapy” referred only to the preparation prescriped by the WHO and UNICEF. In 1988, the definition was again amended in 1988 to include continued feeding as an appropriate associated therapy. In 1991, the definition became, “an increase in administered hydrational fluids” and in 1993. In 2003 WHO and UNICEF recommended that the osmolarity of oral rehydration solution to be reduced from 311 to 245 mosm/L to overcome the potential risk of hypernatremia in children with noncholeradiarrhoea.
ORT is one of the principle elements of the UNICEF “GOBI FFF” program. The programme aims to increase child survival in developing nations through proven low-cost interventions.
Frequently Asked Questions
How to make ORS drink which is available in powder form?
● Put the contents of the ORS packet in a clean container. There are 2 types of ORS compostions available in the market in terms of the amount of water used for preparation: small packet in 200 ml and big packet in one liter.
*Check the packet for directions and add the correct amount of clean water.
*Add water only. Do not add ORS to milk, soup, fruit juice or soft drinks. Donot add sugar.
*Stir well, and feed it to the child from a clean cup. Donot use a bottle.
RECEIPE OF ORS SOLUTION AT HOME:
Give the child a drink made with 6 level teaspoons (1 scoop approx) of sugar and 1/2 level teaspoons (1 pinch approx) of salt dissolved in 1 litre of clean water.
Add lemon as per taste. Be very careful to mix the correct amounts. Too much sugar can make the diarrhoea worse. Too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.
●Storage of ORS-The Only Right Solution in Diarrhoea solution
Store the liquid in a cool place. Chilling the ORS may help. Use the ORS solution within 24 hrs of its preparation.
●Amount of ORS solution for rehydration:
Feed after every loose motion.
For a child under the age of two: Between a half of a large cup.
For older children:Between a half and a whole large cup.
For serve Dehydration: Drink sips of the ORS every 5 minutes until urination becomes normal.
●Type of water used:Use boiled or filtered water:
Prepacked ORS vs home prepared solution: The prepacked ORS solution is referred to as a “complete formula” and contains potassium and a base-either bicarbonate or citrate which corrects acidosis which small infants particularly suffer with dehydration. Potassium depletion results in fatique,apathy and muscular weakness.
Other fluids for management of dehydration:
Rice gruels, cereal gruels,yoghurt drinks like butter milk,green coconut water, carrot soup,rice water (congee).
●In which situations ORS should not be used:
ORT should be discontinued and fluids replaced intravensouly when vomiting is protracted despite proper administration of ORT, signs of dehydration despite giving ORT, the person is unable to drink due to decreased level of consciousness or there is evidence of intestinal blockage or ileus. In person who is not a contradiction to receiving oral rehydration therapy. In persons who are vomiting drinking ors at a slow and continuous pace will help the vomiting to resolve.
●Important aspectsto the management of diarrhoea:
First of all prevention of diarrhoea by breastfeeding environmental sanitation personal hygiene clean drinking water clean preparation and storage of food. Secondly maintenance or increasing food and fluid intake drinking and after an attack of diarrhoea.
Ors therapy was developedin 1940s but didn’t come into common use until the 1970s. It contains a variety of sugar and salt specially sodium and potassium. The recommended formulation includes sodium chloride, sodium citrate. Glucose may be replaced by sodium.
It works glucose increase the uptake of sodium and thus water by the intestines. It therefore,prevents or reverse dehydration and replaces lost salts in conditions such as diarrhoea and vomiting. Use of ors therapy decreases the risk of death from diarrhoea by about 93 percent.
ORS-The Only Right Solution in Diarrhoea is celebrated on 29 july to highlights the importance of ors salts as a cost effective method of health intrevention. Ors jodi has proven to be successful. The efficacy of standard Ors was first demonstrated by pierce et al and others during 1965-69.
The WHO theme for ORS day “Ors-Ors all day keep dehydration at bay”.
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