SportsTrainingMethods in today’s world is a specialised field. It requires a specific, scientific and systematic type of training to improve performance of players. Each activity requires a specific type of physical fitness, components, and training methods to develop that component. The programme of training process in sports is known as ‘SPORTSTRAININGMETHODS’; it helps to improve performance along with specific component of physical fitness.
There are five physical fitness components. They are directly or indirectly interrelated with each other. Each component has its own importance in different games and sports.
SPORTSTRAININGMETHODS OF STRENGTH
●STRENGTH: Strength is an ability of muscles to overcome resistance. Strength can be defined as the amount of force a muscle can exert. It is an essential component of SportsTraningMethods or games and sports. It can be improved through through systematic training.
To develop each sub-component of strength, we need to consider
- Intensity or speed of work.
- Load or resistance or weight.
- Volume or duration of work.
- Frequency or repetition.
- Rest or recovery.
Strength has following types:
A) Static Strength: It is also known as Isometric strength. It is the ability to act against resistance from single or one position. E.g., Arm wrestling, Power lifting, Pushing wall, etc.
B) Dynamic Strength: It is also known as Isotonic strength. It is related to movement. Thus, we can say that it is required for movement.
SPORTSTRAININGMETHODS OF ENDURANCE
Endurance is the ability to sustain or continue activity. It is one of the important components for SportsTraningMethods and for races, and is required for almost all major games like football, hockey , basketball, handball etc.
It is of two types:
● Short term/Anaerobic/Muscular Endurance.
●Long term/Aerobic/Cardiovascular Endurance.
A) Short-term/Anaerobic/Muscular Endurance: This component of endurance is helpful to perform activity for longer duration with fast speed.
B) Long-term/Aerobic/Cardiovascular Endurance: This endurance is helpful when the activity is done for longer duration and the intensity or speed is slower.
●CONTINUOUS TRAINING METHOD.
●INTERVAL TRAINING METHOD.
●FARTLEK TRAINING METHOD.
SPEED AND ITS TRAINING METHODS
● Speed is the ability to perform movement at faster rate. In other words, it is the ability to move as fast as possible. It is one of the important components for SportsTraningMethods and for sprinting. Speed can be measured through reflex test, short sprint, etc., For speed development sufficient level of strength, endurance, flexibility and co-ordinative ability are also required. It is of three types:
A) REACTION TIME: It is the time taken by the body to respond immediately after the stimulus. It can also be said as the first reaction to bring body into action.
B) ACCELERATION: It is the time taken by the body to reach maximum speed. This helps to gain initial speed during action.
C) SPEED OF MOVEMENT: It is the quickness of complete action or movement. It is the time taken by the body to perform complete action.
PARTS OF SPEED RACE
● ACCELERATION ZONE.
● PACE RUN.
● FINISH ZONE.
●ACCELERATION RUN TRAINING METHOD.
●PACE RUN TRAINING METHOD.
SPORTSTRANINGMETHODS OF FLEXIBILITY
Flexibility is the ability of joints to move in maximum range. Flexibility is specific to given joint and dependent upon the musculature surrounding a joint. Flexibility varies from joint to joint due its structure, surroundings etc. It is measured through flexometer.
It is of two types:
A)Passive Flexibility: It is the ability of joint to move in maximum range with external help.
B)Active Flexibility: It is performed without external help or self movement of a part to maximum range.
●ACTIVE FLEXIBILITY TRAINING METHOD.
●PASSIVE FLEXIBILITY TRAINING METHOD.
SPORTSTRAININGMETHOD OF COORDINATIVE ABILITY OR AGILITY
It is the ability of the body to perform movement with perfection and efficiency. It is an important components for SportsTrainingMethods. It is the ability of the human body to change direction quickly and effectively. In others words, it is ability to change movement or direction in the shortest time without getting unbalanced.
Coordinative is of five types:
●ADAPTIVE ABILITY: It is the ability that enables modifications of motor activity on the basis of comparison.
●BALANCE ABILITY: It is the ability to keep body or its parts in relatively stable position.
●COMBINATORY ABILITY: It is the ability to put partial movements together into more complex movements.
●KINESTHETIC ABILITY: It is the ability to realize kinesthetic and dynamic features of movement.
●RHYTHM ABILITY: It is the ability that enables to grasp motor development.
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